Unless your weekend hobby is doing improv, you probably feel uneasy discussing your digestive system in polite company. We all love to eat, of course, but we don't care to think about what happens to that chicken chalupa once it disappears down the hatch. We impose a sort of "don't ask, don't tell" policy on our own digestive systems. This strategy works well enough, until your gallbladder refuses to stay mum or your gut decides to show a little insubordination. Then, suddenly, you want to know what's going on down there in the dark.
The digestive system is a group of organs that work together to change the food you eat into the energy and nutrients your body needs. After you consume food and liquids, the digestive system breaks them down into their basic parts: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins. These basic nutrients are then absorbed into the bloodstream, which carries them to cells throughout the body. Nutrients provide the cells with the energy they need for growth and repair. Everything in your body, from your hormones to your heart, needs the nutrients from the digestive process to work correctly.
When you eat, food travels from the mouth down the esophagus to the stomach. Then it moves through the small and large intestines, and eventually out through the anus as waste. The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are also included in the digestive system. These organs produce chemicals that allow digestion to occur.
All of these organs work in harmony to make sure the body receives the nutrients it needs. Some of the organs are hollow, while others are solid. A series of muscle contractions moves food through the digestive system from the hollow organs to the solid organs. This important process is called peristalsis.
Digestion starts in the mouth. This is where the action of chewing begins to break down starchy foods into carbohydrates. Special glands inside the mouth release saliva. Saliva and the enzymes present in saliva also help accelerate the breakdown of starchy foods.
This organ pushes food from the mouth down to the next part of the digestive system, the stomach.
Once food drops down the esophagus, the muscles at the top of the stomach relax to allow the food to enter. After the food goes into the stomach, the muscles at the bottom of the stomach begin to move. The movement combines the food with the acidic digestive juices produced by glands in the stomach. The acid primarily breaks down foods containing protein. Eventually, the contents of the stomach are emptied into the small intestine.
The muscles of the small intestine mix food with its own digestive juices, along with those from the pancreas and liver. As the small intestine pushes the food toward the large intestine, these digestive juices help to further break down the food into carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The walls of the small intestine then absorb nutrients from the digested food and deliver them into the bloodstream. From there, the blood carries the nutrients to cells throughout the body.
Not all food is broken down by the digestive system. Waste, or undigested food and dead cells, is pushed down to the large intestine. The large intestine absorbs the water and remaining nutrients from the waste before transforming it into solid stool. Stool is stored at the end of the large intestine, called the rectum, until it’s expelled from the body during a bowel movement.
While the hollow organs play critical roles in the digestive process, the solid organs release various chemicals that allow the digestive process to actually work.
The pancreas is located in the upper part of the abdomen, behind the stomach. It produces digestive juices that help the small intestine break down food into carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. It also makes chemicals that help regulate blood sugar levels, which affect how much energy the body has available to use.
Acid reflux occurs when stomach acid or bile flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other uncomfortable symptoms. Most people experience acid reflux from time to time, especially after eating spicy food or heavy meals. When acid reflux happens more than twice per week, however, the condition is considered gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). While acid reflux can cause some discomfort, GERD has the potential to cause serious health problems.
Gallstones are solidified chunks of digestive fluid that can form in the gallbladder. They can be as tiny as a grain of sand or as big as a golf ball. People may have one gallstone or several gallstones at the same time. Some people don’t need any treatment for their gallstones, while others may require surgery to remove their gallbladder.
A small gallstone may not cause any symptoms. A larger gallstone, however, often does cause symptoms. These symptoms may include: